Every day the deserts of the earth reach about 700 times more
solar energy, than people currently consume in fossil fuels.
With the energy carrier Hydrogen we will be able to
supply the required amount of energy worldwide.

Hydrogen : The HydroTecNow project

Everyone is talking about climate change. It gets much worse.

"Peoples of the world, look at this picture."
(modified call from West Berlin Mayor Ernst Reuter 1948).

grey: coal,
orange: renewable energies (arrow),
blue: hydropower,
yellow: atomic energy,
red: natural gas,
green: petroleum,

Source: This report is the latest edition of a report
that has been published for 67 years.

Statistical Review of World Energy

created by British Petroleum, "BP", one of the oil multinationals.

For simplicity's sake, I have read out the ranges of energy resources and written them under the graph.

These predictions coincide with those of the "Club of Rome" from 1972:

Source: Wikipedia        

Our fossil resources will be exhausted long before the end of this century
The world's population is heading for the abyss with increasing speed.

In 50 years the oil will be over !
Natural gas in 53 years !
In 64 years uranium !

Afterwards coal is liquefied to mineral oil, so that also this is soon used up.
However, this will not cover nearly the need.

Let us be clear what this means:
No more baseload-capable electricity supply.
Almost complete failure of the power supply in darkness.
No heating. No more raw materials for important products.
No fire brigade, no ambulance, empty shelves in the supermarket.
No air traffic, no commercial shipping.
The automotive industry, Lufthansa, Airbus, Amazon, Zalando, they no longer exist.

It's the global collapse of life we're living today.

The migration movement will be reversed.
Europeans are striving for Africa, North Americans for Central and South America.
Simply not to freeze to death.
Perhaps we should already be on good terms with those in the south...

Oh yes, renewable energies will save us.
You can see them in the graph where the arrow is.
Everything else will then no longer be available. Only those.
Well, what remains of it.
Offshore wind power plants (e.g. North Sea, Baltic Sea) will no longer exist.
For their service one needs ship diesel and kerosene for the helicopters.
Not to speak of new construction at all.
The little energy from hydropower is limited to very small areas (e.g. Norway) and will not change the condition.

What can we do ?

More than 500 billion euros have been burned in the Federal Republic of Germany in recent years.
Money we had to pay as electricity customers (31 cents per kWh, in Finland 15.5 cents in Greece 18.0 cents).
340,000 households were unable to pay for this. They had their electricity cut off.
According to Robert Habeck, Minister of the Environment at the time (in parliament)
and his State Secretary (at the "New Energy" in Husum in 2018), ZERO tons of CO2 were saved.
Even if it would have worked, we would have reduced the world pollutant output by 0.4% with the whole expenditure.
(Germany's share of global pollutant emissions is 2.56%,
according to BMWi, 17% of them were "green" in 2017.)
China alone is compensating for this in a very short time through its growth there.

No single country can make a global difference.

Especially not because many countries sign a paper that is nothing more than an uncovered cheque for the future. The big money, the greed for growth nobody can slow down.

The Soviet Union and its appendices failed to change humanity, to educate the "good man".

So we would have to "howl with the wolves", as they say. Generate growth.

We should succeed in halving oil consumption, let's say (in the green area of the graph). Then we would have twice as long oil at our disposal. Nominal 100 years instead of 50.

CO2 emissions worldwide would really decrease for the first time.

Source: Bayerischer Rundfunk Quer        

This is possible through the introduction of a global hydrogen economy.

There is huge investment to be made. Siemens and others have the technology for this in stock. Comparatively smaller plants already exist in southern Spain and Morocco.

In Europe, and especially in Germany, local hydrogen centers are being built that will enable the regional operation of hydrogen-supported mobility. The hydrogen is generated with the help of locally generated "green" electricity, which is provided exclusively for this purpose, or with locally generated but not called up for "grid electricity".
Hydrogen, which is generated as "waste" in large chemical companies, is also partly used.
This extremely positive development does not contradict the HydroTecNow project presented here. Only the latter is able to exert a decisive influence on the global energy flow.

The HydroTecNow project

"How can mankind use renewable energy from clean sources in an environmentally friendly way on a scale that takes account of both current and future energy consumption? The deserts of this earth have a key role to play.
Every day the deserts of the earth reach about 700 times more solar energy, than people currently consume in fossil fuels.
Deserts have the best irradiation conditions; the environmental impact of installed solar collectors on the biosphere is minimal. It is possible to produce clean energy in the deserts of the world with the help of solar thermal power plants".

Quoted from the preface to "Der DESERTEC-ATLAS"
Author of the preface:
His Royal Highness Prince El Hassan bin Talal of Jordan
Former President of the CLUB OF ROME.

The initiative DESERTEC supported world-wide prominently with words and capital had at that time a hopeful start.
Fortunately, it did not fail, but it did go back.
From today's point of view and taking into account the technology available today, the reason, in my opinion, is that it also "jumped too short".

The focus was and still is on the generation and (worldwide) distribution of electrical energy. This has proved to be impracticable, in particular due to safety concerns regarding intercontinental power lines.
On the other hand, the local distribution of electrical energy was successful.

The HydroTecNow initiative is based on this, but with the decisive expansion that the energy is distributed worldwide in the form of hydrogen. On the one hand, this eliminates the distribution risks since hydrogen is distributed worldwide by large tankers in the same way as is common today for oil.
On the other hand, hydrogen makes it possible to replace a large part of fossil fuels.
In Germany, electrical energy accounts for about 20% of total energy sales. With hydrogen, the mobility segments would be served with about 40% and, in addition, parts of the much larger heat market.

Near the equator there are two large and almost empty desert areas with maximum solar radiation: A possible UN mandate area in the Sahara to be protected robustly.
And large parts of the Arabian Peninsula.
To see on the entrance graphic.
There, electrical energy would be generated as extensively as possible from solar radiation by solar cells and solar thermal energy.
In solar thermal power plants, a saline solution is heated in the focus line of parabolic troughs during the day. This solution can also be stored in caverns, so that the steam generated can drive the steam turbines for up to seven hours after sunset.

Example of a solar thermal power plant in Morocco.

This electrical energy would be transported through pipes to the respective coasts, where water electrolysis would split water H2O into hydrogen H2 and oxygen.

A solar project worth 200 billion dollars is to supply all of Saudi Arabia with electricity. The right technology is already in use here.
To produce hydrogen, the project would only have to be expanded and supplemented with water electrolysis plants, such as Siemens Hydrogen Solutions

For the country, it would be a win-win situation if, for example, half of oil production were replaced by hydrogen.
The oil would then last twice as long.
The hydrogen would be distributed worldwide in large tankers. Just like oil today.
Such tankers could already be seen in the early 70s at a shipyard in Kiel.
Here is a current Japanese project:

All mobility would be converted to hydrogen propulsion.

The transport and storage of hydrogen is not as easy as with fossil fuels.
The latter, however, will no longer be available to us in the future and their current use is probably harmful to the climate.
So there is nothing else to do but to get involved in the hydrogen-specific conditions.

Hydrogen has a volumetric storage density of only 0.003 kWhth/l in contrast to diesel with 9.96 kWth/l due to its low density in the gaseous state under ambient conditions.
If, on the other hand, the hydrogen is stored under a high pressure of several hundred bar, volumetric energy densities of approx. 1.3 kWth/l are achievable.

This technology is suitable for cars, buses and trucks.
The hydrogen stored in pressure tanks is fed into fuel cells there.
The electric current generated by these cells feeds an electric motor.

Fuel cell cars have been in series production since 2008.

Info about current hydrogen cars as pdf

Hydrogen stations in Central Europe

Regional transport in Cologne is a pioneer of hydrogen mobility:
The transport company has placed a large order with the Belgian bus manufacturer
"Van Hool".
By 2020, 45 hydrogen buses will be operating there.
Then the RVK will have the largest emission-free bus fleet in Europe.
The availability of the buses already in operation is 97%, as is the case with diesel-powered buses.
The hydrogen used is a waste product of the chemical industry.
The 20 tons/day volume produced there is enough for 1,000 buses in the HyCologne region and the h2-Netzwerk-ruhr network.


Market-ready hydrogen buses

Fortunately, Nordrhein-Westfalen is not the only H2 bus location:
In Hessen, the projects are supported by the currently green Economics Minister.


Buses from Hamburg in Hessen

In Lower Saxony trains powered by hydrogen are now starting regular services.

Hydrogen is also a formative topic in Brandenburg .

In Schleswig-Holstein, private initiatives are successfully promoting the use of hydrogen.

Together with H2 Energy, the Korean company Hyundai is preparing the world's first fleet
of 1000 fuel cell commercial vehicles, which will be rolling on Swiss roads from 2019.
Neue Züricher Zeitung

In China, the focus has shifted massively from battery mobility to hydrogen mobility in the last two years.
In addition, a Chinese electrolysis and power-to-hydrogen industry is being set up there with a budget of several billion euros.

The German automotive industry offers neither passenger cars nor commercial vehicles with pure hydrogen drive in series production.
The only exception is DHL's "Streetscooter" special production.

Series production of hydrogen vehicles takes place in
Japan, South Korea, Belgium and Norway.

California plans to have 23,500 hydrogen cars on the roads in 2021.

Here you get a detailed overview on the global hydrogen situation.

We could also use the hydrogen for heating.

Finally the bold lies would disappear with which now is propagated "emission-free mobility" with electric cars and "We drive 100% with green electricity" with the railway.
They all travel with electricity from the European energy network, which contains a considerable proportion of lignite electricity.
Accounting tricks play no role here!

Otherwise, for example, the electricity for the ICEs would have to be obtained directly from wind power plants. In a calm period, the trains would then stop.
That happens nowadays as well, but for other reasons.

The air in the cities would finally be cleaner.

We would no longer have to endure the comedy of smearing about diesel vehicles.

So far, it's been hard facts.

Now I'm starting to dream.
This is also allowed for a physicist.
The question arises, how do we get the whole thing going in reality?

On the one hand, you need an internationally recognised personality who can reach a worldwide consensus on this before the UN.
And you need someone with a relationship to large investment capital.
That reminds me of Mrs Merkel on the one hand and Mr Merz on the other.


After all, they would go down in history as meritorious, the goal of many politicians.

Who fights can lose. Those who do not fight have already lost.

Now to the german madness: "We must save the world".

Neither can we, nor does Mother Earth need it.
If we allow the collapse unchecked, then even before the end of this century the entire fossil carbon will be oxidized by combustion to CO2 and in the atmosphere.

Of the then actually 10 billion people, about as many will survive as could feed themselves at the time when humans began to dig the carbon out of the earth.
So about one billion.
For more the then still available energy is no longer sufficient.

Mother Earth is not interested in that.
After a few hundred years, the CO2 balance between atmosphere and ocean has been restored.


Attempts to establish further energy suppliers.

"New agricultural land should be used for food rather than technical bioenergy, as it is needed to meet the world's growing demand for food.
This recommendation is contained in a study by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The technical contribution of bioenergy, estimated at 13,000 TWh/a worldwide, can perhaps be doubled by systematically exploiting waste from forestry and agriculture. To protect the climate and biodiversity, no more forest should be cleared than grows back.
The bacterial conversion of nitrogen fertilizers into the climate-damaging nitrous oxide means that the quantities of rapeseed and cereals grown to produce ethanol, which cannot be produced without fertilizers, cause more damage to the climate than the use of bioethanol was intended to improve".

From: Physik Journal 7 (2008) No. 10

The burning of so-called "renewable raw materials" on a large scale is one of the most diabolical ideas politicians have come up with under pressure from the citizens "so affected".
The production of palm oil is destroying people and important forest areas in the Third World, the intensive cultivation of maize is destroying the basis for our pollutant-free supply of food.

There are inherent efforts to develop safe nuclear fission power plants.
Some concepts envisage using the waste generated by conventional nuclear power plants to generate energy.
All these experiments will not leave the laboratory status for a long time, if at all.
Official research activities in this field are practically non-existent in Germany.

Nuclear fusion
In controlled nuclear fusion, an attempt is made to fuse hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei in the plasma at temperatures of many millions of °C, following the example of the processes inside the sun, in order to use the energy released in the process to generate electricity.
The key to this lies in a plasma that is as dense and durable as possible.
And, of course, the energy balance must be positive, i.e. the plant must provide more energy than it needs to be supplied from outside for operation.
These requirements for industrial use are difficult to meet.
It has not yet been proven whether this concept will eventually lead to the worldwide supply of electrical energy.
There are research approaches worldwide with fusion reactors of the type Tokamak on the one hand and Stellarator on the other hand.
The German research location is Greifswald with the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

Production of kerosene from solar energy.
In Jülich (Germany), a process is tested in which kerosene is produced from hydrogen and CO2.
"The "Solar Jet" researchers have only produced a few grams of kerosene - how much exactly do they not want to say
In the long term, the aim is to improve the efficiency of the process to such an extent that a solar tower plant about one kilometer in diameter could produce 20,000 liters of the new fuel per day.
But that sounds impressive at best on first listening - the tanks of a single Airbus A380 can hold more than 300,000 litres of kerosene."

That's what the "Spiegel" writes.

One of the relevant questions is where the (concentrated) CO2 will come from in practice when fossil fuels are depleted.
Due to the low local CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, huge contact surfaces would be needed.
All this shows:

We need a global hydrogen economy !

We need HydroTecNow !

March 2019         

The author is a
graduate physicist


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